The Han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue.
Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India.
In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable.
The Song dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao.
In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song.
Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new maritime Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Somalia.
whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature.
At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty.
The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.